The Orange County Screenwriters Association
    Be Inspired, Do Good Work



    Narrative is also called action.  It's what a character does, moves, etc.

    An example would be:

    Judd moves to the door, waiting, dreading the moment when Casey will walk in.


    A slugline is the scene heading in a script.  Either term is acceptable.

    An example of a slugline is:



    A transition is a line or word that describes movement between scenes.

    For example:


    Transitions are placed on the far right margin on a line by themselves.  These days, transitions are used much.


    V.O. means VOICE OVER.  It is used to modify the speaker.

    For example:

    MANNY (V.O.)
    I knew I was in trouble as soon as I met him.  He was bad - you could smell it on him.

    A voice over narrator is not seen although it could be one of characters in the film.  The narrator of "STAND BY ME" is an example of a person who isn't directly seen in the movie although his younger self is.

    Copyright (c) Orange County Screenwriters Association
    Fair Use Statement

    Fair use refers to the right to reproduce, use and share copyrighted works of cultural production without direct permission from or payment to the original copyright holders. It is a designation that is assigned to projects that use copyrighted materials for purposes that include research, criticism, news reporting and teaching. When a project is protected under fair use provisions, the producers of that project are not subject to sanctions related to copyright infringement. The maintenance of fair use protections is central to many non-profit and education projects, especially those that operate in digital and online spaces.

    This website may contain copyrighted material, the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright holders. The material is made available on this website as a way to advance research and teaching related to critical media literacy and intercultural understanding, among other salient political and social issues. Through context, critical questioning, and educational framing, the Orange County Screenwriters Association, therefore, creates a transformative use of copyrighted media. The material is presented for entirely non-profit educational purposes. There is no reason to believe that the featured media clips will in any way negatively affect the market value of the copyrighted works. For these reasons, we believe that the website is clearly covered under current fair use copyright laws. We do not support any actions in which the materials on this site are used for purposes that extend beyond fair use.